Arabic Verbs & Essentials of Grammar, 2E

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There are some sections which are barely more helpful than "such and such concept exists but it's complicated so if you want to know about it, go find a more comprehensive grammar. Excellent book to learn Sarf. May 10, Alisha Lakhani rated it really liked it. CLear and concise. Provides a broad and basic overview of the essentials of Arabic grammar and explains key concepts well.

Jan 15, Csilla rated it really liked it. This is a very good book if someone teaches Arabic for beginners. It has a useable vocabulary, the explanations on verbs are clear and easy to memorize. Advanced students though should chose other books. Karl Galle rated it liked it Mar 11, Sameer rated it really liked it Nov 12, Karen rated it liked it Jan 01, Tomatessechees rated it liked it Dec 14, Polly Glot rated it liked it Jan 01, Nicole M.

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Check for new and used marketplace copies. Can one book have all you need to communicate confidently in a new language? It offers a solid foundation of major verbal and grammatical concepts of the language, from pronouns to idioms and expressions and from irregular verbs to expressions of time.

Each unit is devoted to one topic, so you can find what you need right away and get focused instruction immediately. Concise yet thorough, the explanations are supported by numerous examples to help you master the different concepts. Irregular verbs: Doubled verbs 30 6. Irregular verbs: Verbs with hamza 33 7. Derived forms of verbs: Introduction 38 8.

Derived forms II-IV 40 9. Derived forms V-VI 47 Derived forms VII-X 54 1 1. Essentials of making sentences with verbs 62 Verbs in the subjunctive 65 Verbs in the jussive incl. Making verbs negative 79 Making verbs passive 82 Verbal nouns and other verbal constructions 87 Verbs in the dual 95 Verbs with four root letters quadriliterals 97 The article and personal pronouns Genders Sentences without verbs Describing things Describing position prepositions of place Plurals Describing possession Questions and relative clauses The dual Appendixes i Arabic alphabet and pronunciation ii Grammatical case endings iii Numbers Verb Index: Arabic verbs for easy reference Arabic-English English- Arabic Introduction This book is intended for beginning and intermediate learners of Arabic.

You could be studying in a group or by yourself. Either way, you should find this book an essential and accessible introduction to Arabic verbs and grammar and a helpful on-going reference. We are assuming a basic knowledge of the Arabic script as it is not possible to teach this skill within the parameters of this guide.

However, to help you we have also included transliteration throughout, using a simplified system see Appendix i , page Arabic Verbs and the Essentials of Grammar aims to make Arabic grammar more understandable by presenting it in an accessible style. This guide covers most of what you will need to know about Arabic verbs during your study of modern Arabic, and also provides a useful summary of the main grammar points. This is a study aid rather than a course. However, there is progression in the two main parts of the book, or you can simply dip in to brush up on a particular area.

Verb Index This second edition also includes a comprehensive Verb Index listing high-frequency Arabic Verbs including all those in this book. The index will enable you to look up individual verbs in Arabic or English alphabetical order and find out their pronunciation, root letters and type. You will then be able to reference them to the relevant sections in this book.

Not only this, you will also gain a better insight into how the Arabic verbal system works in general, and so be able to use other advanced dictionaries and references more effectively. We hope you find this book a useful tool in your study of Arabic.

Arabic Verbs & Essentials of Grammar

Click here for terms of use. I The Arabic root system The key to understanding how Arabic grammar works is in its system of roots. Once you understand how roots work, you can start to identify which are the root letters of a word and understand the patterns they produce. You will then be able to form the different structures following the patterns and use your knowledge to pronounce words correctly and to guess at the meaning of vocabulary.

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We can begin by looking at some English words: necessary unnecessary necessitate necessarily necessity As a speaker of English, you can see that these words are connected in meaning. The Arabic root system 7 Can you spot the three Arabic letters that appear in each of the words on the previous page? You should be able to see that these letters appear in all the words: 1. These three letters, in this order, are the root. Notice that sometimes there are other letters as well as the root letters, but the root letters will always appear in the same sequence.

The root letters mushroom into many different possible words. Much of Arabic grammar is concerned with manipulating the three root letters into different patterns. If you look back at the English words on the first page of this chapter, you will 8 The Arabic root system see that most of the changes take place at the beginning and the end of the word, leaving the core untouched.

Arabic, on the other hand, adds letters, or combinations of letters, between the root letters, as well as on the beginning and end. In the first chapters of the book, we have tried to also use other common words to illustrate the patterns. However, later we have introduced more examples using JjJs, since this is the convention understood most widely by both native speakers and Arabists. You will find the root system very helpful once you have understood the concept and been introduced to some of the more common patterns Native Arabic speakers have an instinctive understanding of how their language works, but as a learner you will need to approach it more methodically.

Soon you will begin to see the pattern and the shape of words, and the structure of the language will start to become apparent. Using a dictionary It is worth adding a note about how to use an Arabic dictionary. It is possible to put Arabic in strict alphabetical order as we do in English, and this is becoming more common in the age of computerized The Arabic root system 9 alphabetization see page for the order of the Arabic letters.

Arabic Verb Tenses (Practice Makes Perfect) (2nd CSM Bilingual) [Paperback]

However, the most widely used dictionary for learners A Dictionary of Modem Written Arabic, Hans Wehr uses a system based on the root letters of the word. This means all words with the same root letters are grouped together.

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You will need to try and figure out the root letters of a word before you can look it up in the dictionary. This page intentionally left blank 2 Regular verbs: The basic tenses Arabic is relatively straightforward when it comes to tenses. Some languages have many tenses and are very specific about the time of an action and whether or not the action has been completed. In rare cases, the second vowel is a Damma u , but you can ignore these verbs since you are not likely to see or use them. Different endings can be added to this past stem depending on who is carrying out the action the subject of the verb.

If we add the ending o tu to the stem, it becomes -. Note that you will not meet or need the feminine plurals as often as the masculine plurals. This is because you only use the feminine plural if all the people in a group are female. If the group is mixed male and female, the masculine is used. Therefore, this form is the most important to leam and become familiar with in the first place. There are also different endings for two people the dual. To make it easier to absorb the basics first, an explanation of the dual and its associated verb endings has been separated. Refer to Chapters 17 and 28 for an explanation of the dual if you need it.

Regular verbs: the basic tenses 15 You do not have to use the personal pronouns he, she, etc. If you see an Arabic sentence like this:. The sentence could be more specific and say exactly who wrote the letter the subject of the verb. Notice that in written Arabic the subject Fatma usually comes after the verb wrote.

More explanation of word order can be found in Chapter The Present The present is used for an action or state which is still going on unfinished. Whereas the past is formed by adding endings to a stem, the present adds letters on the beginning and end of a different present stem to show the subject of the verb. Fook first at the present verb below. These letters on the beginning and end are underlined in the third column. Can you identify the stem that appears throughout? The different letters added on the beginning and end prefixes and suffixes are arranged around this present stem to show the subject of the verb.

Ajt-ojdl c U V I t. U The children play football on Friday s. Your friend is sitting in my chair! As with the past, the vowel on the second root letter varies in the present. If the middle vowel on the past is a kasra, then it usually changes to a fatHa in the present: shariba he drank yashrab he drinks However, the majority of verbs have, fatHa as the middle vowel of the past and, for these verbs, there is no rule to follow in the present. Most Arabic is written without vowels and you will probably leam the more common middle vowels over time.

Native speakers will usually understand you as long as the root letters and the patterns are correct. Often the word Lijl sawfa or the prefix sa are added to the front of the verb to indicate the future. We are going to the Egyptian museum tomorrow. Endings are added to the stem to show the subject of the verb. Prefixes, and sometimes also endings, are added to the stem to show the subject of the verb. Unfortunately for the learner, Arabic has many irregular verbs although some are more irregular than others!

To help you remember the irregular verbs, we have chosen common verbs in each category to illustrate the patterns in which they appear. The verbs you see in the tables and examples in the following chapters are those you will probably encounter on a regular basis and will need to communicate in Arabic. By studying the way they work and meeting them frequently in spoken and written Arabic, these verbs should help to establish the irregular patterns in your mind.

The irregular verbs are covered first in the basic tenses see Chapter 2 for a review of these tenses. Later chapters cover the various forms and variations. If you need to access this information immediately, go straight to the relevant chapter which will show you how each type of irregular verb behaves in these circumstances. If you want a general overview, work your way more systematically through the chapters in the order they are presented. Weak verbs are the largest category of irregular verbs. The government promised a reduction in taxes after the elections.


The table below shows more fully the present tense for the verb to arrive : singular Uf I jaSil u ojl you masc. They are called hollow verbs because the second middle root letter is often replaced by a long or short vowel. This table summarizes the past tense for hollow verbs: singular U I oj you masc.

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I slept until morning. From the table on page 23, you might have noticed that there is a short vowel in the middle of hollow verbs when there is a sukuun. Since the present tense usually has a vowel after the third root letter even if this is not always pronounced , this means that hollow verbs in this tense are characterized mainly by a long vowel in the middle. Pay the most attention to learning the first two types. The third type has been included mainly for recognition. Notice that only the less common feminine plurals have a sukuun over the third root letter and a short vowel in the middle.

As in the past, this vowel depends on the middle root letter. Waaw or yaa' as third root letter This group of verbs is sometimes called defective verbs. These verbs have a long ii in many parts of the past tense, e. Verbs with waaw or yaa' as a root letter 29 Notice that defective verbs in the present tense can usually be spotted because they have a long vowel instead of the third root letter.

Some of the changes that happen are not very logical and can be difficult to remember. Concentrate on the most common parts first. Leave the other parts e. This is a short vowel if the third root letter has a sukuun. Each pattern should be learned individually. They are one of the simplest forms of irregular verbs to master. Irregular verbs: Doubled verbs 3 1 As most parts of the present tense have a vowel after the third root letter, this means that you will see the root letters in a doubled verb written together in most cases.

Here is a table summarizing the past and present patterns for doubled verbs. A good exercise is to cover the column showing the doubled verb and see if you can predict the pattern according to the mles on page In fact, this is also a common written error among native speakers. This can be confusing to a learner and is worth a special mention. The nearest analogy in English is the apostrophe.

In both cases there is uncertainty as to when and how to use it, even among native speakers. The apostrophe causes more errors in English than virtually anything else and the hamza probably has this dubious distinction in Arabic.

Read the general guidelines but be prepared to refer to the tables regularly. The hamza itself is considered a consonant, not a vowel, pronounced as a short glottal stop — see Appendix i for more detail on pronunciation.

Arabic Verbs & Essentials of Grammar 2E – Book Bay KSA

Many verbs have hamza as one of the root letters. It can be any of the three root letters and is found in some common verbs. Like the apostrophe, the rules such as they exist for hamza are more concerned with where to place it than how to pronounce it. Verbs with hamza as one of the root letters are mainly regular. The changes that occur are in the letter that carries the hamza.

There are some guidelines for writing hamza. The simplest way to predict how a particular pattern will be written is to look at the pattern for regular verbs see Chapter 2 , and then apply the general rules on the following page. Remember that there are exceptions and alternatives. For individual verbs, check the tables in this chapter and in the relevant chapters for derived forms or other patterns.

Q Ij,. If you refer to the tables on page Irregular verbs: Verbs with hamza 35 35, you will start to get a feel for how to write these verbs.