Detecting LSB Steganography in Color and Gray-Scale Images
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Since the previous two bits of the Least Significant Bits are altered the possibility of having a substantial content of information is possible. This technique will overcome the problems faced by many other steganography techniques like LSB, Filtering, Masking, etc In the face of having only short messages embedded into the image. Call for Paper - November Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is October 21, Read More. International Journal of Computer Applications.
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Email the author Login required. Post a Comment Login required. By Author. By Title. Total views : Abdalhakeem T. DOI : Abstract Objectives: In this study, features of the pixel and Fuzzy Inference System FIS are combined to hide the secret image in the pixels of an image. Findings: Results reveal that this system hides the secret information more effectively. Zhao et al. Another work is found in [ 21 ] where the authors overcome the falling-off boundary problem by adopting the adaptive PVD approach.
Several researchers have employed either LSB substitution or a PVD-based steganographic approach to devise some efficient colour image steganographic schemes. In [ 22 ], the authors have enhanced the security of the colour steganographic scheme where they have not concealed secret message bits in sequential order into each colour pixel. The embedding process is realized based on a secret pseudorandom value which decides adaptively the payload capacity and the sequence of embedding secret message bits into each colour plane.
Their indirect approach definitely enhances the security level.
Estimating the Secret Message in the Digital Image
Another LSB substitution-based colour image steganography is found in [ 23 ] where the secret message bits are hidden with reference to an indicator colour plane instead of directly embedding the secret message bits in order. A modified PVD-based steganography is proposed by Nagaraj et al. In their scheme, they used modulus 3 function with PVD for realization of secret message bits into colour pixels.
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In their scheme, an RGB colour image is decomposed into non-overlapping blocks of two consecutive pixels. Three different pairs, namely R,G , G,B and B,R , are formed from two consecutive colour pixels and the secret message is embedded based on differences of colour component pairs. They have improved the hiding capacity while maintaining acceptable visual quality of the stego-image.
However, in their scheme, hiding capacity is not excessive. Adaptive PVD-based colour image steganography is suggested in [ 28 ] where the secret message is concealed in the block level of each colour plane. The vertical and horizontal edges are exploited in each block during the message-embedding process. The above colour image steganographic schemes basically work on a colour plane instead of on colour pixels. Hence in this paper, we have proposed an RGB colour image steganography, where the secret message is concealed into each colour pixel independently.
The proposed scheme chooses a colour pixel at a time and embeds the secret message into each colour pixel individually by employing the modified PVD appropriately. In the proposed scheme, the colour pixel is grouped into two pairs, namely R,G and G,B , to form two overlapping blocks. PVD is applied to each pair, for embedding the secret message bits.
Afterwards, the proposed readjustment process is carried on each pair to obtain the final modified stego colour components, i. R, G and B components. The proposed readjustment process ensures that, in the decoding process, PVD is applicable to extract the secret message bits from the stego colour pixel. The proposed scheme will improve the embedding capacity due to consideration of overlapping block concepts.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the basic idea of the PVD method. The PVD method [ 13 ] uses grey-level images as the cover image and variable-sized secret message bit sequences are embedded into the cover image. Fewer secret message bit sequences are embedded into the smooth region compared with the edge region. The absolute value of d i denotes the variation present in each block. A small value of d i suggests the presence of a smooth region, whereas a larger value indicates the presence of the edge region.
The possibility is that d i belongs to the range of [0, ] when the greyscale image consists of intensity values. The d i value can be quantized into several regions as shown in figure 1. The lower and upper bound of each R i is denoted by [lower i upper i ]. The obtained bit sequence is converted into decimal value, t d.
An example of the PVD process is illustrated below. We illustrate the embedding procedure in figure 2 with a pair of two consecutive pixels and from a cover image. The number of secret message bits is decided based on.
Suppose the 4 bits binary secret message is 2 and its corresponding decimal value is 11 The modified difference and m are calculated as follows:. The above example is graphically represented in figure 2. The proposed colour image steganographic scheme is presented in this section.
Initially, each colour pixel is decomposed into its corresponding colour components, i. R, G and B. Later we have formed two pairs with a combination of R,G and G,B.
Other ordered pairs are also acceptable, but in this work, we have implemented our scheme using the pairs like R,G and G,B. R,G and G,B will form two consecutive overlapping blocks as shown in figure 3.
In our scheme, we have embedded the variable secret message bits based on the difference of each pair using PVD. After embedding the secret message bits into each pair, the intermediate colour components are further readjusted to attain the final stego-colour components. A natural colour image may be dominated by particular colour components as an outcome of the data hiding process of that particular pixel, and the distortion may be large enough to be perceived.
In this paper, we have avoided this circumstance by adopting a suitable threshold value.
Least Significant Bits (LSB) insertion
The data-hiding capacity in each colour pixel is restricted by the threshold value, so that the stego-image may retain high visual quality. Figure 4 shows the overall embedding process. The decoding process is shown in figure 5. The algorithm steps of the proposed embedding and extraction procedure are presented as follows:. An illustration of the secret message-embedding procedure is given in figure 6.
Let the RGB colour components be , and , respectively. We have taken a random secret message bitstream as …. The stego colour components obtained according to our approach are 95, and In this section, the experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme has been tested on a set of standard colour images, but in this paper, we present the results for six colour images where the images are selected with consideration of diverse image features to estimate the performance in terms of visual quality and embedding capability of the stego-images.
The original images are shown in figure 7. The randomly generated message bits are considered as secret message bitstreams in our experiment. After the embedding process, the obtained stego-images are as shown in figure 8 and it is observed that the imperceptibility of stego-images is high. Table 1 gives the results of the proposed scheme in terms of embedding capacity and PSNR value. We have obtained high acceptable PSNR values for stego-images with a high embedding capacity of secret messages.
Hence, in the proposed scheme, the PSNR values as well as the visual appearance of the stego-image and histogram suggest that the distortion appearing after embedding of the secret message into the cover image is reasonably less and imperceptible to human visual perception.
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The proposed scheme is also compared with some other steganographic schemes in terms of embedding capacity and PSNR, and their results are given in table 1. The experimental results indicate that the proposed steganographic scheme appropriately meets the requirements of steganography, where we have succeeded to embed a huge number of secret bitstreams while maintaining acceptable visual quality of stego-images.
Baboon difference image histograms are a R, b G and c B. Jet difference image histograms are a R, b G and c B. Sailboat difference image histograms are a R, b G and c B. Pepper difference image histograms are a R, b G and c B. Lena difference image histograms are a R, b G and c B. Car—house difference image histograms are a R, b G and c B. Most colour image steganography works on individual colour components instead of considering all colour components together. But in this paper, the proposed method conceals the secret message bits directly into each pixel sequentially.
Conventional PVD works on the idea of overlapping blocks of colour components. The proposed readjustment process of colour components confirms the feasibility of conventional PVD-based decoding procedure.